Aerial roots, one of several forms of roots found in plants, are more common on houseplants.
In this case, the exposed roots may be identified by their appearance.
An aerial root is a kind of root that grows above the plant’s ground level.
They are roots that begin to grow on the surface of the plants, unlike the normal roots, which begin to grow below the surface of the plants.
Plants with woody vines benefit from aerial roots because they can cling to things like walls and rocks that provide support for their growth.
Like their conventional counterparts, aerial roots are capable of absorbing nutrients and water. In bogs and marshes, aerial roots help plants breathe because their underground roots cannot absorb gas to help them survive.
The aerial roots aid in the stability of the plants. On top of all that, they give them oxygen and nourishment. This is because aerial roots are adventitious roots (fibrous roots).
10 Plants With Exposed Roots
1. Epiphytic Orchid
There are many varieties of blooming plants in the Orchidaceae family, which is often known as the orchid family.
There are numerous synapomorphies or derived characteristics that distinguish orchids from other plants.
Zygomorphism, many resupinate flowers, a highly modified petal (labellum), fused stamens and carpels, and extremely small seeds are some examples of these characteristics.
Some orchids have modified aerial roots up to a few meters in length. Older root sections have a modified epidermis known as “velament” that absorbs water.
In appearance, it can be silvery, white or brown.
The root epidermis cells grow at a right angle to the root’s axis to gain a firm grip on their supporting structure.
For epiphytic orchids, the main sources of nutrition are mineral dust, organic detritus, animal droppings, and other substances that collect on the surfaces they are supported.
2. Bayan Tree
When a banyan’s seed germinates in a crack or fissure of a host tree or building, it begins its existence as an epiphyte or a plant that grows on another plant.
Banyans bear their fruit in a structure known as a “syconium,” which they share with other fig species.
Fructus syconium provides food and refuge for fig wasps, and the trees’ pollination is dependent on these wasps.
The banyan tree is leathery, shiny, and green. Scales cover the leaf bud, like figs. Reddish tinges can be found on the leaves of young plants.
Aerial prop roots of older banyan trees develop into thick, woody trunks that might blend in with the main stem over time. Prop roots allow older trees to extend out laterally and cover a larger area.
Tagetes is a genus of roughly 50 species of annual herbs belonging to the aster family (Asteraceae).
The pot marigold (genus Calendula) and other plants from numerous families are also known as marigolds.
The size of the Tagetes species ranges from 0.1 to 2.2 meters tall. Pinnate green leaves are seen in the majority of species.
Blooms come in various hues, including golden, orange, yellow, and white, with maroon tints. Floral heads range from 1 to 4–6 cm in diameter, having both ray and disc florets.
Although perennial plants are gaining popularity in gardening, they are commonly planted annually. They have adventitious roots.
Here is an article I wrote about plants with circular roots
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is the sole surviving member of the genus Cocos and a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae).
With pinnate leaves of 13–20 ft long and pinnae of 60–90 cm, Cocos nucifera is a huge palm that may reach 30 m (100 ft) in height.
Coconut palm trees may produce 75 fruits a year in healthy soil. Coconut trees may yield their first fruit in six to ten years, with peak output requiring 15 to 20 years.
While most plants have taproots and hairs, the palm tree has fibrous roots. Thin roots protrude from the plant’s surface and spread forth in all directions.
Stability is provided by only a few roots penetrating deeply into the earth. It is common for grass species to have a fibrous or adventitious root structure.
The grass is any of many low, green, nonwoody plants of the grass (Poaceae), sedge (Cyperaceae), and rush (Rushaceae) families (Juncaceae).
Other flowering plant families include numerous grasslike members, but only the nearly 10,000 species in the Poaceae family are real grasses.
They are the most commercially significant flowering plants because of their nutritious grains and soil-forming ability.
They supply feed for grazing animals, shelters, construction materials, furniture and utensils, and human nourishment.
Others are planted as ornamental grasses, lawn grass, and cover plants for erosion prevention. Most grasses have hollow stems, blade-like leaves, and fibrous roots that spread out widely.
6. Onion Plant
Although the onion plant is biannual, it is often planted as an annual.
Modern cultivars often reach a height of 15–45 cm (6 to 18 in). Yellowish- to bluish-green leaves alternately grow in a flattened, fan-shaped swath.
They are fleshy, hollow, cylindrical, and have a flattened surface on one side.
They are widest about a quarter of the way up, then taper to a blunt point. Each leaf has a flattened, generally white sheath at its base that emerges out of the bulb’s basal plate.
A bundle of fibrous roots extends a short distance into the soil from the underside of the plate.
As the onion becomes older, food reserves develop in the leaf bases, expanding the onion bulb.
Also check out this article I wrote on plants with deep roots
The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a flowering plant in the nightshade family (Solanaceae) widely grown for its delicious fruits.
In addition, tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamin C and the phytochemical lycopene.
Tomato plants are often densely branching, spreading 60–180 cm (24–72 inches) and drooping somewhat while ripening, but a few varieties are compact and erect.
Leaves are hairy, pungent, pinnately complex, and up to 45 cm (18 inches) in length.
Tomato plants can have a fibrous root or taproot. This all depends on the way it is planted.
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an aster-family annual leaf vegetable (Asteraceae).
The majority of lettuce cultivars are consumed raw and are frequently used as the basis for green salads.
Lettuce is a good source of vitamin K and A. However, the nutritional value varies with type.
Taproots or fibrous root systems are both possible in lettuce plants.
Domesticated variants feature a broad variety of leaf colors, ranging from pale green to dark crimson and purple; variegated types have also been created.
Lettuces are collected before blooming, as flowering elongates head lettuce, lowers the size of the leaves, and imparts a harsh flavor.
Yellow flower heads bear achene fruits with fluffy pappus appendages that aid in wind distribution.
Lilies are long-lived perennials that may grow up to 6 feet tall (183 cm).
They produce scaly, tunicless subterranean bulbs that serve as their means of sustaining themselves.
Small bulbs are present on the rhizomes of several North American types of tulip bulbs. Stolons are a feature of several species.
There are a few types of bulbs that develop bulbs close to the earth’s surface.
The stem roots of many species can be found in various ways.
As the new stem emerges from the earth each year, adventitious roots spread outwards, allowing the bulb to develop organically at soil depth.
Besides the bulb’s base roots, these roots also grow outward from the bulb.
10. Sweet Potato
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant. It has a huge, starchy, sweet-tasting tuberous root as a root vegetable.
Some people prepare the young shoots and leaves like vegetables and consume them.
As a result, sweet potato cultivars have been developed to produce tubers with varying shades of flesh and skin.
They are herbaceous perennial vines with medium-sized sympetalous blooms. They also have alternating heart-shaped or palmately lobed leaves.
It is common to see the stems crawling on the ground and forming new roots at the nodes of the stems. The stems are clamped together.
Aerial roots provide benefits to plants in their natural habitats and indoors when attempting to replicate these habitats.